Left-behind Women: Gender Exclusion and Inequality in Rural-urban Migration in China
Jingzhong Ye, Huifang Wu, Jing Rao, Baoyin Ding, Keyun Zhang
(Corresponding author: Jingzhong Ye, email: email@example.com )
The Journal of Peasant Studies, 07 Jun 2016 (published online)
Abstract: Driven by the momentum of global capitalism and developmentalism, China has undergone rapid industrialization, urbanization and marketization since the 1980s in order to accelerate economic growth and integration into the global market. Taking agriculture as the starting point of reform, the government implemented the Household Responsibility System, abolished the collective economy and returned to a peasant economy, and then replaced the planned economy with a capital-led export-oriented economy (Pan, Lu, and Zhang 2012). With the loosening of the urban-rural dualist social structure, the youngest and most dynamic labourers have been allowed to migrate into cities. The large movement of labourers from rural China to cities started in the 1990s, along with the initiation of economic reform and the relaxation of the household registration (hukou) system.